Japan - Sectors of Application of Science and Technology

As many know, Japan is among the leaders in the world, when it comes to science and technology. They are always developing research and innovating various branches of technology. Multinational companies, such as Sony, Panasonic, Honda and Mitsubishi, are some of the several that have their main headquarters in Japan, that is, they are Japanese companies.

However, Japan is also limited and focuses on some major and most important branches for them. This also happens because of capitalism, after all what drives research is the income they can generate, so they receive financial support, that is, the more money the research result will generate, the greater the investment in research. That is why we do not see so many efforts to seek a cure for diseases, they prefer to search for palliative methods. Of course, it does not apply to the general, as there are several cases in which this comment does not prove valid.

Anyway, back to the main theme, which is science and technology in Japan. We can say that they are mainly focused and prominent in some branches of research. And they are what we will learn in this article.

Japan - application sectors of science and technology

Consumer electronics in Japan

I believe that this topic is no surprise, after all this is a sector that moves an absurd amount of money. A practical example is the number of cell phones in the world. We have more cell phones than people in the world, this number has grown in recent years.

To demonstrate this statement in numbers, let's take the number of people (7 billion), I decided, put just one number to facilitate, if we take the prices of cell phones and smartphones, we will have an average (these are not official data, they are just my numbers) opinion based on what I read and see on the internet) of 500 R$ per device, with that we will have a market of 3.5 trillion reais, and still growing. This is higher than the GDP of most countries in the world. To get a sense of Japan's GDP, it is around 4.5 to 5 trillion dollars. With that we can see why there are so many companies and researches exclusively focused on this scientific branch.

But, it is not just because of cell phones that this branch is gigantic. To better understand, I will put the definition of this branch.

Consumer electronics are electronic equipment ( analog or digital ) intended for daily use, usually in private homes. That is, it encompasses devices used to entertainment ( Flat screen TVs, DVD players , video games, drones, remote control toys, etc.), communications ( phones , mobile phones , Smartphones, Iphones, iPads, etc.), and home-office devices (e.g., desktop computers ,printers , paper shredders , etc.). 

This branch is ideal for capitalist companies to invest, as the return is guaranteed in most cases, and in some specific cases, the return is gigantic, as is the case with the success of smartphones.

Japan - application sectors of science and technology

Robotics in Japan

Robotics it's a branch interdisciplinary in engineering and science that includes mechanical Engineering , electronic Engineering , computer science and others. Robotics deals with the design, construction, operation and use of robots , as well as computer systems for your control, sensory feedback and information processing .

These technologies are used to develop machines that can replace human beings and replicate human actions. Robots can be used in any situation and for any purpose, but today many are used in hazardous environments (including detection and bomb deactivation ), manufacturing processes or where humans cannot survive. Robots can take any shape, but some are made to look human in appearance. This is said to aid a robot's acceptance of certain replicative behaviors generally performed by people. 

These robots try to replicate walking, standing, talking, and basically anything a human can do. Many of today's robots are inspired by nature, contributing to the field of biological-inspired robotics. This is a topic well discussed in society, we have several films talking about machines with AI (artificial intelligence) dominating the world or controlling people in favor of the destruction of society. All discussions come with the question "how far can we trust the machines?"

Japan - application sectors of science and technology

The concept of creating machines that can operate autonomous goes back to classic times, that is, such ideas existed many years ago. But research on the functionality and potential uses of robots did not grow substantially until the twentieth century, as many people believed that these were crazy and crazy ideas, this type of thinking has not only focused on this topic, since the beginning of time there has been this kind of thinking, we have examples with Albert Einstein, Charles Darwin, Nikolas Tesla, Santos Dumont, Tomas Edison, Ludwig van Beethoven, Henry Ford, Graham Bell and many others who were considered crazy because of their ideas, which later became extremely fundamental pillars for the society we know today.

Throughout history, it has often been assumed that robots will one day be able to imitate human behavior and manage tasks in a human way. Today, robotics is a rapidly growing field, as technological advances continue; researching, designing and building new robots serve several practical purposes, be it national , commercial or militarily.. Many robots are built to perform jobs that are dangerous to people, such as defusing bombs, finding survivors in unstable ruins and exploring mines and shipwrecks. Robotics is also used in STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) as teaching aid.

The science fiction author Isaac Asimov he is often credited with being the first person to use the term robotics in a short story written in the 1940s. In history, Asimov suggested three principles to guide the behavior of intelligent robots and machines. At Asimov's three laws of robotics , as they are called, have survived to the present:

  1. Robots must never harm humans.
  2. Robots must follow instructions from humans without violating rule 1.
  3. Robots must protect themselves without violating the other rules.

Anyway, this branch is one of the most observed mainly in Japan, they research to the maximum the development of autonomous machines, after all the world is always looking for this type of product. Especially in the field of AI, Japan is one of the biggest references in the field. However, if we think about it from another angle, we will see that the more robots working, the less human beings there will be, that is, reducing jobs even more and requiring even more qualified people to work. But that discussion is not relevant in this article.

Japan - application sectors of science and technology

Automotive industry in Japan

The term automotive was created from automobiles Greek (self) and Latin motivus (motion) to represent any form of self-powered vehicle. This term was proposed by Elmer Sperry ( Elmer Ambrose Sperry was an American inventor and entrepreneur.)

I don't even need to comment on the size of this sector and the income it has. To do this, just look at the street, depending on the city you can count dozens or even hundreds in a single day. But this technology sector does not only belong to cars, it also includes motorcycles, boats, agricultural and road machinery, etc. However, we will focus only on the cars, as this is the most relevant to the article.

THE industry automaker from Japan  is one of the largest industries in the world. Japan was among the three countries with the highest production of cars since the 1960s, surpassing Germany, which is one of the major references in this sector. The automotive industry in Japan grew rapidly from the 1970s until the 1990s (when it targeted both the domestic market and exports). After the entry of Chinese manufacturers in the 2000s and economic fluctuations in the United States, Japan was ranked as the third largest automotive producer in the world with an annual production of 9.9 million cars in 2012.

Japan - application sectors of science and technology

Japanese investments have helped to develop the industry in many countries in recent decades. In the 1970s, Japan was a pioneer in manufacturing robotics of vehicles. The country is home to a large number of companies that produce cars, construction vehicles, motorcycles and motorcycles. Among them we can mention Honda, Nissan, Suzuki, Mitsubishi, Yamaha and Mazda and several others, among them the majority are large multinational companies extremely popular in Brazil.

Cars designed in Japan won awards Car of the YearHereInternational Day of the Year and World Car of the Year for many times.

The industry Automotive involves a wide range of companies and organizations involved in the design, development, manufacture, marketing and sales of motor vehicles. This is one of the most important economic sectors in Japan and the world in recipe . The automotive industry does not include industries dedicated to car maintenance after delivery to the end user, such as car repair shops and fuel stations, this means that this sector manages to generate even more income indirectly in the countries' economy.

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