Equality comparisons establish a comparison between two or more beings. Equality comparatives are often “how, how much”Used in phrases like: "My car is as good as yours." or "He's fast as a Cheetah.".
In Japanese, to make equality comparisons we use “ように” and “ような” (youni and youna). To make the comparison we use the following structures:
- A は BのようにTHEDJ or VERB;
- SUBSTANTIVE + のように + MAIN VERB.
VERB + ように + MAIN VERB;
- P は A のようなB に VERB (ような + noun);
- ADJ or VERB + ような + SUBSTANTIVE / PERSON;
So we come to the conclusion that ように is used with an adjective and verb. Meanwhile ような is used with a noun. Remember that よう is used at other times to indicate other things as something similar or similar. Below see details of each structure related to よう:
- よう - as if, how;
- ような - as soon as, as well as (used with nouns);
- ように - such as, when (used with verbs or adjectives);
- …ように - warn, give order (end of sentence);
- ようになる - ようになった - becoming, getting to the point, being able;
- ようだ - ようです - Looks like;
- みたいに みたいな (Colloquial form). - Looks like;
Of course, the structure will depend on how we want to express or say the sentence, the examples below will help you to understand the function and difference of ように and ような.
- Kare wa chītā no yō ni hayaidesu;
- He is fast as a Cheetah;
In that sentence we had a simple example using ように.
- Minori wa horie yui no yō ni utaeru yo;
- Minori can sing like Yui Horie;
Another example using ように. As we are talking about equality I need to say: 彼女たちは同じですよ (Kanojotachi wa onajidesuyo) They are the same.
- Kare wa kyūden no yōna ie ni sunde iru;
- He lives in a house that looks like a palace;
Now in this example we had the use of ううな. He realized that now the 2 objects that are compared are separated by ような.
- Kare wa watashi ga sōzō shite ita yōna hitode wa nakatta;
- She was not who I had imagined her to be;
This example showed a negative case, it is clear that the same structure is used.
- Ichijō-kun no koibito wa gorira no yōna on'nada;
- Ichijo's boyfriend is a woman who looks like a gorilla;
I hope you understand the reference to that sentence.
- Kare wa kitsune mitai ni zuruidesu;
- He is as cunning as a fox;
In this example we use the colloquial form of ように.
- Neko no you na kumo;
- A cloud that looks like a cat;
This sentence is simple, composed of only 2 nouns.
- Pure no you ni nihongo wo hanashitai;
- I want to speak Japanese like a professional;
This example used ように with a verb in tai form.
- Sleep kami hikouki wa shiroi tori ga sora wo toned iru you ni mieru;
- This paper plane looks like a white bird flying through the sky;
This example was a little more complex and did not use the particle の before ように. This happened because the word that proceeds ように is a verb.
Were these examples enough for you to understand how to make equality comparisons? If you want to complement the article, leave your comments.