Comparatives of equality establish a comparison between two or more beings. Comparatives of equality are often "how much" used in sentences like: "My car is as good as yours." or "He's fast as a cheetah.".
In Japanese, to make equality comparisons, we use "ように" and "ような" (youni and youna). To make the comparison, we use the following structures:
- AはBのようにADJ or VERB;
- NOUN + のように +MAIN VERB.
VERB + ように +MAIN VERB;
- PはAのようなBにVERB (ような+ noun);
- ADJ or VERB + ような + NOUN / PERSON;
So we come to the conclusion that ように is used with an adjective and a verb. Meanwhile ような is used with a noun. It is worth remembering that よう is used at other times to indicate other things as something similar or similar. Below, see details of each structure related to よう:
- よう - as if, as;
- ような – as (used with nouns);
- ように - such - as, when (used with verbs or adjectives);
- ...ように- warn, give order (end of sentence);
- ようになる - ようになった - become, come to the point, be able;
- ようだ - ようです - Looks like;
- みたいに みたいな (Colloquial form). - Looks like;
Of course the structure will depend on how we want to express or say the sentence, the examples below will help you understand the function and difference of ように and ような.
- Kare wa chītā no yō ni hayaidesu;
- He is fast as a cheetah;
In this sentence we had a simple example using ように.
- Minori wa horie yui no yō ni utaeru yo;
- Minori can sing like Yui Horie;
Another example using ように. As we are talking about equality I need to say: 彼女たちは同じですよ (Kanojotachi wa onajidesuyo) They are the same.
- Kare wa kyūden no yōna ie ni sunde iru;
- He lives in a house that looks like a palace;
Now in this example we had the use of ような. You noticed that now the 2 objects that are compared are separated by the ような.
- Kare wa watashi ga sōzō shite ita yōna hitode wa nakatta;
- She wasn't who I had imagined her to be;
This example showed a negative case, it can be seen that the same structure is used.
- Ichijō-kun no koibito wa gorira no yōna on'nada;
- Ichijo's boyfriend is a woman who looks like a gorilla;
I hope you understand the reference to that sentence.
- Kare wa kitsune mitai ni zuruidesu;
- He is as cunning as a fox;
In this example we use the colloquial form of ように.
- Neko no you na kumo;
- A cloud that looks like a cat;
This sentence is simple, made up of only 2 nouns.
- Pure no you ni nihongo wo hanashitai;
- I want to speak Japanese like a pro;
This example used ように with a verb in the form tai.
- Sono kami hikouki wa shiroi tori ga sora wo toned iru you ni mieru;
- This paper plane looks like a white bird flying through the sky;
This example was a little more complex and did not use the の particle before ように. This happened because the word that precedes ように is a verb.
Were these examples enough for you to understand how to make equality comparisons? If you want to complement the article, leave your comments.