132 Structures of N4 Japanese Grammar

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In this article, we are going to share a list of Japanese grammatical rules and structures studied in JLPT N4. This is a complete list of Japanese N4 grammar, involving particles, adverbs and other expressions that form the basis of Japanese.

The jlpt-nihongo nouryoku shiken - Japanese proficiency exam
JLPT is the Japanese Language Proficiency Test

N4 JLPT Japanese Grammar

We recommend examining grammatical expressions in isolation, as errors may have occurred during translation. The purpose of the list below is just to show you what you need to study to take the JLPT N4.

Responsive Table: Scroll the table to the side with your finger >>
あまり~ないamari~nainot much, not much~
いたしますitashimasuto do (polite form of する)
いらっしゃるirassharuto be; come over; to go (polite version)
お~くださいo~kudasaiplease do (honorific)
お~になるo~ni narudo (honorific)
おきにok nirepeated at intervals, every ~
かいkaiturns a sentence into a yes/no question
かしらka shiraI wonder ~
がするga suruto smell; to hear; taste
かどうかok okwhether or not ~
かなkanaI wonder; I must?
かもしれないkamo shirenaicould; possibly; indicates possibility
から作る(からつくる)kara tsukurumade of; done with
がりstreet sweepersomeone tends to; has a tendency to; have sensitivity to ~
がる・がっているgaru; gateiruto show signs of; appear; feel, think
が必要(がひつよう)ga hitsuyouneed; required
きっとkittoCertainly; undoubtedly; almost certainly; probably
くするku surudo something ~
ございますenjoybe, exist (the polite form of いる / ある)
ことkotoverb nominalizer
ことがあるkoto ga aruthere are times when
ことができるkoto ga dekiruhe can; able to
ことにするkoto ni surudecide on
ことになるkoto ni naruit was decided that ...; happens that..
sa-ness; nominalizer for adjective
さすがSasugaas expected; as is to be expected; really ~
させてくださいsasete kudasaiplease let me do
させられるsaserarerucausative-passive; be made to do something
させるsaserucausal form; do / let someone do something
さっきsakkisome time ago; right now
shiand; and what else; emphasis ~
じゃないかjanai karight? is not? let's go ~; confirmation
ぜひzehiby all means; Certainly; definitely ~
そうだI'm from [1]I heard this; it is said that ~
そうだI'm from [2]looks; appears as; looking like ~
そうに・そうなam ni / am nalooks like; looks like ~
それでもsore demobut still; and still; anyway ~
それにsore nifurthermore; moreover, moreover; furthermore; moreover ~
そんなにsonna nimuch; so; like that
たがるtagaruwant to do ~ (third person)
だけでdake ofonly for; just doing
たところok tokoroI just did, was just doing
たばかりok bakarifinished; something just happened
たらtarewhat if; after; when ~
たらいいですかtara ii desu kawhat should I do?; speaker seeking instructions from the listener
たらどうtara givewhy don't you (used to give advice)
ってttenamed; called ~
づらいzuraihard to do ~
て / でyou / fromconjunctival particle; so; because of [a], [b]…
てあげるyou actedto do; do a favor
ていくyou ikuto start; Continue; to continue
ていたgo youwas doing something (past continuous)
ていただけませんかte itadakemasen kacould you please~
ているところteiru tokoroin the process of making
ておくok youdo something in advance
てくるkuru youdo… and come back; become; Continue; to start ~
てくれるkureru youto do you a favor; do something for someone
でございますfrom gozaimasube (honorific)
てしまう / ちゃうyou shimau / byeto do something by accident, to finish completely
てすみませんdisappearforgive me for
ではないかdewa nai karight?; is not?
てほしいyou hoshiiI want you to; I need you ~
てみるI looked at youtry to do
てもI fearup until; even if; away ~
でもdemo… or something; how about ~
てもらうlived youto get someone to do something
てやるyou yaruto do; do a favor (casual)
てよかったyou yokataI'm happy that..
towhenever [a] happens, [b] also happens
というI'm gonecalled; named; what ~
ということto iu kotoconvert phrase to noun
とか~とかtoka~tokaAmong other things; such as; like ~
ところtokoroalmost; about to do something
と思う(とおもう)I lovedthink…; I think…; you think…
と聞いた(ときいた)I'm kiitaI heard…
と言ってもいい(といってもいい)to ittemo iiyou could say; you can say; I would say ~
と言われている(といわれている)to iwarete iruit is said that ~
nano~ (ask someone not to do something)
なかなか~ないnakanaka~naiit's not easy; fighting for; unable to ~
ながらnagaraWhile; during; as; simultaneously
なければいけないnakereba ikenaiI must do something; have to do something
なければならないnakereba naranaiI must do something; have to do something
なさいnasaido it (soft/firm command)
なさるnasarudo (honorific)
などswimsuch as things like ~
ならnarawhat if; in the case of ~
にくいnikuihard to do ~
にするni surudo something ~
にみえるno mieruto look; seem; appear
に気がつく(にきがつく)ni ki ga tsukuto notice; accomplish
のにnonialthough, despite, although ~
のにnoniDo something); in order to ~
のは〜だnowa~da[a] is [b]; the reason for [a] is [b]
の中で(のなかで)in the hell ofat the; come in ~
baconditional form; if [a] then [b]
は〜が… はwa~ga… wa[a] but [b]; Yet; Comparation
ばかりbakarionly; nothing but ~
はずがないhazu ga naicannot be (impossible)
はずだhazu damust be; should be (expectation)
またはmatawaboth; or; otherwise; choose between [a] or [b]
までにmade niper; by the time; indicates time limit
ままmamahow it is; current state; without changing ~
みたいだmitai dalike, similar to, similar
みたいなmitai nalike, similar to ~
みたいにmitai nilike; similar to ~
moas many as; as well as; up until; almost ~
やすいyasuieasy to; prone to; prone to; have a tendency to ~
やっとyachtfinally; finally; bad; closely ~
ようだyou givelooks; looks; looks like ~
ようと思う(ようとおもう)you loved methinking of doing; planning ~
ように / ようなyou ni / you nalike; as; similar to ~
ようにするyou ni suruto try; to make sure that ~
ようになるyou ni naruget to the point that; to become that; to turn into ~
よりyorithan; rather than; more than ~
らしいrashiilooks like; I heard; apparently ~
られるrarerupotential form; ability or inability to do something
予定だ(よていだ)yotei daplan, intend
他動詞 & 自動詞(たどうし & じどうし)tadoushi & jidoushitransitive and intransitive verbs
全然~ない(ぜんぜん~ない)zenzen~nai(not at all
出す(だす)dasuto begin; to begin; to explode; … out (e.g. to jump, to perform)
受身形(うけみけい)ukemi keipassive form; passive voice
場合は(ばあいは)baai wain the event of; in case of
始める(はじめる)hajimeruto start; to start ~
後で(あとで)act ofafter ~; later
必要がある(ひつようがある)hitsuyou ga aruneed; it is necessary
急に(きゅうに)kyuu niquickly; immediately; hastily; suddenly; abruptly; unexpectedly ~
意向形 (いこうけい)ikou kei – volitional formvolitional form; let's do it ~
終わる(おわる)owarufinish; to finish ~
続ける(つづける)tsuzukerucontinues to; interested in ~
間(あいだ)aidaWhile; during; in between
間に(あいだに)aida niwhile / during ~ something happened
頃(ころ / ごろ)koro / koroaround; about; When

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