Why do Japanese words have so many meanings?


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Many end up confused and lost with the amount of meanings of a word when browsing Japanese dictionaries like jisho.org or our Portuguese dictionary in japones.skdesu.com? Perhaps one wonders, why do Japanese words have so many meanings? In this article we will answer that question!

Sometimes a Japanese word has so many meanings that we are even confused to know which one is correct. Sometimes the same word has meanings that have nothing to do with each other, sometimes even opposite meanings.

There are many reasons for us to understand why Japanese words have many meanings. The 4 main reasons can be summarized in the summary of the article below:

Japanese grammar generates many meanings

The main reason for the Japanese language has several meanings for a single expression if it is due to Japanese grammar. It uses many particles and complements that totally change the meaning of the word.

Usually when searching for a word in the dictionary, he will not present it with different particles and complements. For this reason, a word in the dictionary can have opposite and different meanings.

The context is also able to change the meaning and the intention with which the word is spoken. For this reason it is not good to stick to the meanings of a Japanese dictionary. Sometimes the dictionary even has a negative version of the word.

Por que as palavras japonesas tem muitos significados?

The same word followed by combinations like desu [です] may have a different meaning in the sentence. So most of the time you find many meanings of a single word in the dictionary, everything is linked to Japanese grammar.

Another thing that adds a lot of meanings in the Japanese language is its transformation of words. A single word that is a noun can be transformed into a verb, adjective and vice versa.

The meaning that a word conveys varies according to the word that is combined with the context and general to which it belongs. This is one of the peculiarities of the Japanese language, which we can find in any language.

Ideograms and origin created many meanings

The Japanese language has its alphabet based on ideograms that express ideas. A word can be composed of several ideograms that present different ideas. A single ideogram can also have several meanings.

Not to mention that the ideograms are of Chinese origin. Many Japanese words end up inheriting in addition to the Japanese meaning the Chinese meaning of ideograms and words.

A single ideogram can have an isolated meaning or several meanings that in reality are only certain compounds in a word. The dictionary hardly explains this and presents several meanings in a single ideogram.

Por que as palavras japonesas tem muitos significados?

There are usually Japanese words composed of just one ideogram, sometimes with more than one pronunciation and with different meanings. The word itself with the meaning of the ideograms are different things.

Not to mention the many other Japanese words of foreign origin. This causes in addition to words with many meanings, several words with the same meaning and the same use.

As an example let's take the word maru [丸] which is just an ideogram. See below the list of meanings that this simple Japanese word can have:

  • Circle;
  • Totality, whole, full, complete;
  • Money, pasta, spring;
  • Cabinet inside the walls of a castle;
  • Suffix for names of ships, people, instruments, dogs and etc;

If you search only for the ideogram, it will give you the meaning of round, circular, circle, round, full, perfection, pills, round, roll up, roll up, seduce and explain;

See how confused you are? Don't worry too much about it, it may seem complex, but in reality you have nothing to worry about. Most of the time particles, complements and contextual words will help you understand what really maru [丸] means.

History and evolution have changed the meanings a lot

Throughout Japan's ancient history, words have changed their meaning and usage. This happens in several languages, where we have words that we stop using, or they just change the meaning.

Japan has a troubled history with many abrupt changes in both population and language. It is no wonder that Japan is divided into 47 states and each with its different dialect and accent.

Por que as palavras japonesas tem muitos significados?

Japan spent a lot of time in civil wars where the population lived isolated, separated and disunited. This caused each party to use the Japanese language in a different way. Another reason why Japanese words have several meanings.

Nowadays there are many words that have lost their original use, but dictionaries still retain their present meaning. This is not exclusive to Japanese, just browse any dictionary and you will be lost.

The Language Change confuses your head

In fact, as I mentioned several times, you can take an English dictionary and check the meaning of a certain word, it will also have many different meanings.

Sometimes the meanings presented do not make sense, but for the Japanese they do. You are making a change of language, so it is understandable to be totally lost with the Japanese way of thinking.

Another thing you need to keep in mind is that dictionary definitions may not be correct and match live conversation or in different situations.

Por que as palavras japonesas tem muitos significados?

Without wanting to swear, Brazilians use the word fuck being that in the dictionary it refers to a part of the ship, but in informal language it refers to the male genital organ, and at the same time it refers to something surprising, an admiration or enthusiasm.

The Japanese language can have a lot of these incomprehensible things. For this reason, you need to adapt to the situation and real life and not get stuck in a dictionary.

How not to get lost in Japanese

First, avoid trying to memorize the meanings of a word or ideogram within a Japanese dictionary. Nobody takes a Portuguese dictionary and memorizes the meaning of each word.

Most Brazilians speak Portuguese without having been in the dictionary searching for every word they wanted to learn. Try to learn things naturally without any worries.

To avoid problems when learning new words, try to focus only on the commonly used meaning of a Japanese word. But be flexible to understand new meanings depending on the context of a sentence.

Por que as palavras japonesas tem muitos significados?

It is as if you want to target a target. Target shooting has several points depending on where to hit. A Japanese word is like a target, where the most used meaning is worth 100 points, while the secondary word is worth less points.

When you play target shooting you always try to hit the middle. So keep that in mind, if you don't get it right in the middle, you will still earn points, just don't try to get it out. Remember that the position and strength of the wind can also affect the path of your arrow.

The strength of the wind and its position is exactly the particles, context and complements of the Japanese language. You need to adapt to the situation to hit the target right in the middle.