Kosoado – Demonstrative Pronouns in Japanese

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Ever wondered how to say this, that, that, which, where, here, there, there and other Japanese demonstrative pronouns? In this article we are going to talk about these pronouns that are called kosoado.

Demonstrative pronouns are used to indicate positions in a conversation. In Japanese they are called shinjigo [指示語] and shijishi [指示詞]. These pronouns can also indicate places, things, people, direction and other functions of the Japanese language.

Kosoado and Pronoun Divisions

The name Kosoado is a compound of 4 series that classify the demonstrative pronouns, they are represented by the kana initial of each pronoun. That are:

  • Ko [此] – or “Kinshou” [近称], represents something close to the speaker/speaker;
  • So [其] – or “Chuushou” [中称], represents something close to the listener;
  • A [彼] – or “Enshou” [遠称], represents something distant from the speaker/speaker and the listener;
  • Do [何] – Represents something of indeterminate position, and can be used for questions;

the pronouns kosoado are divided into 7 types:

  • Jibutsu [事物] – Things;
  • Bashou [場所] – Place;
  • Houkou [方向] – Direction;
  • Ninshou [人称] – Personal;
  • Rentaishi [連体詞] – Prenominal names;
  • Fukushi [副詞] – Adverb;
  • Keiyoudoushi [形容動詞] – Noun adjectives;

It is also worth remembering that within the kosoado are the personal pronouns that we will also examine.

Responsive Table: Scroll the table to the side with your finger >>
ThingKore [これ] ThisSore [それ] ThatAre [あれ] ThatDore [どれ] Which
PlaceKoko [ここ] HereSoko [そこ] AliAsoko [あそこ] ThereDoko [どそ] Where
Direction Kocchi [こっち] HereSocchi [そっち] ThereAcchi [あっち] AliDocchi [どっち] Which
Direction Kochira [こちら] HereSochira [そちら] HereAchira [あちら] AliDochira [どちら] Which
GuysKoitsu [こいつ] This personSoitsu [そいつ] That personAitsu [あいつ] that personDoitsu [どいつ]
GuysKonata [こなた] This personSonata [そなた] This personAnata [あなた] that personDonata [どなた] Which
PronounKono [この] This one, this oneSleep [その] This, thisYear [あの] thatOwner [どの] Which
Adverb Kou [こう] This WayI'm [そう] This WayAa [ああ] that oneDou [どう] What?
Adverb Kou [こう] This Way I'm [そう] SoAa [ああ] Like thisDou [どう] How?
Adjective Konna [こんな] Like this Sonna [そんな]Anna [あんな]Donna [どんな]

Let's look at some usage examples below:

Jibutsu [事物] – Demonstrating things in Japanese

the kosoado of jibbutu It is used for inanimate objects, animals and plants.

  • これは本です。 / kore wa hon desu. / This It's a book;
  • それは猫です。 / sore wa neko desu. / That it's a cat;
  • あれは花です。 / Are wa hana desu. / That one it's a flower;
  • どれがあなたの車ですか。 / dore ga anata no kuruma desu ka? / Which is your car?

Bashou [場所] – Demonstrating places in Japanese

As the name implies, it serves to demonstrate places, locations, etc.

  • ここはブラジルです。 / Koko wa burajiru desu. / Here it's Brazil!
  • そこは熱いですか。 / Soko wa atsui desuka? / There it's hot?
  • あそこはきれいな町があります。 / Asoko wa kireina machi arimasu. / There there is a beautiful city;
  • 有希さんはどこですか。 / Yuki-san wa doko desuka? / Where is Yuki?

Houkou [方向] – Showing direction in Japanese

It points a direction to look or follow. Be careful not to confuse it with "place".

  • こっちの水は甘いです。 / Kocchi no mizu wa amai desu. / The water here is sweet;
  • こちらは一番大きい家です。 / Kochira wa ichiban ooki ie desu. / Here is the biggest house;
  • そっちの花はもっときれいです。/ Socchi no hana wa motto kirei desu.. / The flowers there are more beautiful;
  • そちらの道はやばいです。/ Sochira no michi wa yabai desu. / This path is dangerous;
  • あっちへ行って!/ Acchi e itte! / Go there!
  • あちらの山は寒いです。 / Achira no yama wa samui desu. / That mountain is cold;
  • こっちか?そっちか?どっち?/ Kocchi ka? Socchi ka? docchi? / This way? Or over there? In which?
  • 学校はどちらですか。 / Gakkou ha dochira desuka? / Which way is the school located?

Ninshou [人称] – Indicating a person

An informal way of referring to a person.

  • こいつは意志薄弱な男です。/ Koitsu wa ishi hakujakuna otokodesu / That man is a weak man.
  • そいつはいい考えだ。/ Soitsu wa ī kangaeda. / this is a good idea. [no need to name a person directly.]
  • あいつを撃つ。/ Aitsu the utsu. / shoot in him;

Rentaishi [連体詞] – PRONOMINALS

Different than kore, sore, are Pronominal pronouns are used to further specify the sentence, and must always be followed by a noun. The image at the beginning of the article will help you understand the difference.

  • こ の かばんはいくらですか? / Kono kaban wa ikura desu ka? / How much is this bag?
  • そ の かさは千五百円です. / Sleep kasa wa sen gohyaku en desu. / That umbrella is 1500 yen.
  • あ の じてんしゃは八万六百円です. / Year Jitensha wa hachiman roppyaku en desu. / That one bicycle [there] is 80,600 yen.
  • ど の とけいが千円ですか? / Owner tokei ga sen en desu ka? / Which clock is 1000 yen?

Fukushi [副詞] – ADVERBS

  • その漢字はこう書くんです / Sono kanji wa kaku ndesu / This kanji is written in this way
  • そうです / soudesu / that's right / that's right / that's right;
  • ああいう人は見たことない / aaah iu hito wa mita koto nai / I didn't see any person there;
  • どういういみですか / douu imidesu ka / What does it mean?

Keiyoudoushi [形容動詞] – NOMINAL ADJECTIVES

  • どんなことには耐えられないよ / Don'na kotoni wa tae rarenai yo / I can't stand something like this
  • そんな感じです/ Son'na kanjidesu / It's such a feeling / It's this feeling!
  • なんでそんなことしたの / Nande son'na ko to shita no / Why did he do that?
  • あんなやつ大嫌いだ / An'na yatsu daikiraida / I hate that person
  • どんな こと でも / Don'na kotode mo / No matter what, anything

Those were the KOSOADO and some usage examples, we didn't go into too much detail so you don't break your head, it may seem confusing at first, but only with time and practice you will understand the feeling of each word.

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