Basic class - Kara and Made particles

Today you will know the particles kara (から) and made (まで) which are very simple and widely used in the Japanese language. In brief kara means "From" and made means "Up until",  however it is used with several other senses and meanings. Both apply in situations, time, space, quantities, locations, etc.

Kara - から

The particle kara indicates the starting point and origin, ie "starting". If the element is a noun, the particle kara it can take on the meaning of “de, da, do”. And when the element that accompanies the kara is an adjective or verb, it usually indicates the origin, reason or cause of an action.

Usage examples: 

Announcement
  • マタイ 5章20から24節
  • Matai go sho nijuu kara nijuuyon setsu
  • Matthew chapter 5 verses 20 to 24;
  • The phrase indicated the reading of a verse up until the other, giving the meaning of “a”, “ao” “to”, even though the made particle is not used, because it indicated from one point to the other.

  • どこから来ましたか
  • Doko kara kimashitaka?
  • Where are you from?
  • The phrase did not indicate any “from” or “from” but asked the origin.

  • お母さんからの手紙
  • okaasan kara no tegami
  • Mother's Letter

See the difference between 2 phrases, one using kara and the other using made.

Announcement
  • カナダまで来た (kanada made kita) - Came to Canada
  • カナダから来た (kanada kara kita) - Came from Canada

  • チョコレートはココアから作ります。
  • Chokorēto wa kokoa kara Tsukurimasu
  • Chocolate is made (from) of cocoa;
  • The particle can be used to indicate the composition or origin of something.

  • コンピュータが安かったからたくさん買いました。
  • Konpyūta ga yasukattakara takusan kaimashita;
  • I bought the computer, because it was cheap;
  • (because, by the fact, like, since, considering that, seeing that)
  • When the particle kara appears after an abstract noun, adjective or verb, it can indicate the reason for an action to happen.
Announcement

Made - まで

The particle made indicates the point of arrival, the end, ie "Up to or to some extent". The particle made it also expresses the sense of limit.

Usage examples: 

  • 今までありがとう
  • Ima made arigatō
  • Thank you so far

  • 何時まで(?)
  • Itsumade
  • How much time,  Until when? 
Announcement

  • この電車は東京まで行きますか? 
  • Kono densha wa Tōkyō made ikimasu ka?
  • Does this train go to Tokyo? (does this train go to Tokyo?)

  • どこまでいらっしゃいますか。
  • Doko made irasshaimasu ka;
  • Where are you going?
  • Literally: Where are you going? or How far are you going?

Using kara together with made

Both particles can be used together to express the beginning and end of anything. In these cases we can literally translate kara like "in" and made like up until. Let's see some examples:

  • 私は八時から六時まで仕事をします。
  • Watashi wa hachiji kara roku-ji made shigoto o shimasu;
  • I will work from 8 to 6. (hours)
  • The same can be asked:

  • 私は、家から学校まで自転車で通っています。
  • Watashi wa uchi kara gakkō made tōtte imasu jitensha;
  • I go from home to school by bicycle;

  • 今日から明日まで勉強します
  • Kyō kara ashita made benkyō shimasu
  • From today until tomorrow (I will) study

I hope you enjoyed this basic article. If you want to share examples with visitors leaving your comments, everyone is grateful.