Grammatical Structures of Japanese N3

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In this article, we are going to share a list of Japanese grammatical rules and structures studied in JLPT N3. This is a complete list of Japanese N3 grammar, involving particles, adverbs and other expressions that form the basis of Japanese.

The jlpt-nihongo nouryoku shiken - Japanese proficiency exam
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N3 JLPT Japanese Grammar

We recommend examining grammatical expressions in isolation, as errors may have occurred during translation. The purpose of the list below is just to show you what you need to study to take the JLPT N3.

Responsive Table: Scroll the table to the side with your finger >>
JapaneseRomajiExplanation 
あまりloveso much that
あまりにもamari ni motoo much; so much that; excessively ~
いくら~てもikura~ I'm afraidno matter how ~
うちにuchi niWhile; before ~
おかげでokage ofthanks to; because; because of ~
かけるkakerua half-; not yet finished; in the middle of ~
がたいcatvery difficult; hard to ~
がちgachiwant; tendency to; often; often; do something easily
から〜にかけてkara~ni kaketethrough; from a to b]
か何か(かなにか)ka nani kaor something ~
きりkirionly; only; Since; after ~
くせにkuse niand still; Despite; despite the fact that ~
くらい・ぐらいkurai / gouraiabout; about; around; as far as ~
こそkosofor sure (emphasize the previous word); precisely; definitely ~
ことkoto(must do
ことからkoto karafrom the fact that ~
ごとにgoto nieach; each; at intervals of ~
ことになっているkoto ni natteiruto be expected; to be scheduled for; it was decided as a rule that
ことは~がkoto wa~gaDespite; but ~
ことはないkoto wa naiIt is not necessary; (something) never happens; there is no possibility that ~
さえleaveup until; As well as; not even
さえ~ばcome~baif only; While
さてsateconjunction: well; now; so ~
さらにsara nifurthermore; again; more and more ~
しかないshikanaihave no choice but to ~
しばらくshibarakufor a moment; for a while; for a while
じゃないjaniperhaps; probably; confirmation of information; Express surprise to the listener
ずつzutsuone piece; each; at once
すでにsouth nisomething has already been done/happened; it's already the case
すなわちsunawachiin other words; namely ~
ずにzoomwithout doing ~
ずにはいられないzuni wa irarenaiI can't help but feel; I can't help but do; must do ~
せいぜいseizeimaximum; at best; The maximum
せいでknow ofbecause of; because; as a result of ~
そうもない /そうにないI'm mo nai / I'm ni naivery unlikely for ~; showing no signs of ~
そのためにsleep tame niconsequently; therefore; because of ~
それともsoretomeor; or else ~
だけdakeas much as ~
だけでなくdake of nakunot only but also
だけどdakedoHowever; but
たってtattooeven if; Despite; no matter how ~
たてtatejust did it; made on time; freshly made
たとえ~てもtatoe~ I'm afraideven if... it's the case
たとたんokas soon as; just like ~
たびにtabi niwhenever; every time ~
ためにtame nifor; in order to; for the benefit of; because of; as a result of ~
たものだokused to do; would often do
だらけdarakefull of; covered with; a lot (something undesirable)
ついtsuiaccidentally; involuntarily; by mistake
ついでにtsuide niwhile, incidentally, at the same time, on the way ~
ついにtsui nifinally ~; anyway ~; At the end
っけlola casual suffix to confirm something you are trying to remember
っぱなしppanashileaving (something) on; leaving (something) still in use
っぽいppoilooks like; a little ~; -ish; easily ~; often does ~
つまりtsumariin other words; In short; in short ~
つもりだったtsumori dattaI thought ~; I believe ~; was planning ~; intended ~
つもりでtsumori ofwith the intention of doing ~
ている場合じゃない(ているばあいじゃない)teiru baai janaiit's not time to do~
てからでないとyou kara de nai tomust first do; can't do without first doing~
てごらんGoran you(please, try; (please look
てしょうがない・てしかたがないte shou ga nai/te shikata ga naican't help but ~; much; extremely
てはいけないからte wa ikenai karanot to ~; to prevent a negative situation
てばかりいるbakari iruonly; nothing but ~
てはじめてget you upnot until; only after [x] I
てもかまわないI fear kamawanaiit doesn't matter if ~
てもしょうがない / てもしかたがないtemo shou ga nai / temo shikata ga naino reason to ~; no use ~; there's no way
ても始まらない(てもはじまらない)I fear hajimaranaieven if you… it's no use; it doesn't make sense~
て済む(てすむ)sum you upenough by; no problem for; solve by ~
といい / たらいいto ii / tara iiit would be nice if; we must; I hope ~
ということだto iu koto daI heard ~; means that ~; in other words ~
というのはI'm going nowthis means; the meaning of… is; Why; I mean ~
というよりI'm yoriinstead of ~
といってもto ittemothough I say; although one can say ~
どうしてもdoushitemono matter what; At any cost; after all ~
とおりにtoori niJust as; on the way; like ~
ところがtokoro gaeven though; However; away ~
ところでtokoro fromby the way ~
としてtoshitelike ~; in the role of ~
とすれば・としたら・とするとto sureba / to shitara / to suru toin the case of ~; assuming ~; if A then B
とても~ないtotem~naiit can not be; hardly ~
とは限らない(とはかぎらない)towa kagiranainot necessarily; it's not always true
とみえる / とみえてto mieru / to mietelooks like ~
どんなに~てもdonna ni~temono matter how much)
と共に(とともに)I'm taking ittogether with; at the same time as; as well ~
と言うと(というと)I'm going totalking about; When you talk; when you say ~
と言えば(といえば)to iebatalking about; When you talk; when you say; if it were the case ~
ないことはないnai koto wa naican; it's not impossible~
ないとnaitomust do; unless / if you don't ~
なかなかnakanakamuch; quite; pretty; instead; just not ~
ながらもnagara mobut; Despite; despite ~
なぜならnazenaraWhy; the reason is; if you want to know why
なるべくnaru bekuas much as possible
なんか・なんて・などnank; nant; swimgive examples; show modesty; ignore ~
において / におけるni oite / ni okeruat the; at the place); with respect to ~; as for ~; in relation to ~
にかけてni kaketefor a period); through ~; with respect to ~; in relation to ~
にかわって / にかわりni kawatte / ni kawariinstead of ~; replacing ~; in the name of ~
にしたがってni shitagatteAs; Therefore; in accordance with; according to; consequently
にしてはni shite wafor; whereas it is (something or someone)
にしてもno shite moeven if; Despite; regardless of ~
についてin tsuiterelative; about; about; in ~
につれてno trumpetAs; in proportion to; with; how... so ~
にとってnot tottefor; for; relative; concerning…; in relation to ~
にはno wafor the purpose of; in order to ~
によって / によるni yotte / ni yoruthrough; because; because; because of ~
によると /によればni yoru to/ni yorebaaccording to ~
に反して(にはんして)no hanshiteagainst; contrary to; in contrast to ~
に対して(にたいして)ni taishitetoward; against; about; in contrast to
に慣れる(になれる)ni narerube used to something
に比べて(にくらべて)no kurabetecompared to ~; compared to ~
に違いない(にちがいない)ni chigai naiI'm sure / sure; no doubt that ~
に関する / に関して(にかんする / にかんして)ni kan suru / ni kan shiteabout; about; related to ~
のでしょうかno deshou kaask a question politely
は~で有名(は~でゆうめい)wa~de yuumeifamous for ~
ば~のにba~noniit would have; it should; if only ~
ば~ほどba~hodoHow much more
ばいいba iishould, can, it would be nice if~
ばかりでbakari fromonly; only (negative description)
ばかりでなくbakari denakunot only, but also; as well ~
はもちろんwa mochironnot to mention; not only; but also ~
ばよかったba yokattait should; would have been better if ~
は別として(はべつとして)wa betsu toshiteBesides; Besides; except for; whether or not ~
ふとfutoSuddenly; accidentally; unexpectedly; unintentionally ~
ぶりにburi nifor the first time in (period)
ふりをするfuri the suruto fake; act as if~
べきだbeki dashould do; must do ~
べきではないbeki dewa naishould not do ~; should not do ~
ほどhodograde; extension; Limits; upper limit
ほど~ないhodo~naiIt's not so… like ~
まさかmasakathere's no way; This is impossible; you must be kidding
まるでmaru ofAs if; as if; just like ~
むしろmushiroinstead; instead of; better ~
めったに~ないmetta ni~naidifficultly; rarely; rarely
も~ば~もmo~ba~moand; Furthermore; also; or; neither nor
もしかしたらmoshika shitarapossibly; perhaps; by chance; by chance ~
もしも〜たらmoshimo~taraWhat if; inside the case; guessing ~
ようがないyou go naithere is no way; it's impossible ~
ようとしないyou to shinaido not try; don't make an effort to~
ようとするyou're surutry; try; be about to ~
ような気がする(ようなきがする)you na ki ga suruhave the feeling that; looks; looks like; I think ~
ようにyou don'tin order to, so that ~
ように見える(ようにみえる)you ni mieruto look; seem; to appear ~
よりもyorimocompared to; instead of ~; more than ~
わけがないwake ga naithere is no way ~; it's impossible ~
わけだwake datherefore; no wonder; as you would expect; The fact is that; so you mean ~
わけではないwake dewa naidoes not mean that; It's not the case; I did not mean that; it's not true that ~
わけにはいかないwake niwa ikanaiShould not; can not afford; must, have no choice but to ~
わざとwazatoon purpose; intentionally ~
わざわざwazawazahave the job of; get out of your own way to ~
をはじめthe hajimefor example; starting with
を中心に(をちゅうしんに)the chuushin nifocused in; centered on
を込めて(をこめて)the kometefilled with; full of
を通じて /を通して(をつうじて /をとおして)o tsuujite / o tooshitethrough; through; over; per
んだってndatteI heard this; I heard this ~
一体(いったい)ittaiemphasis; what on Earth; what in the world ~
一度に(いちどに)ichido niall at once
一方だ(いっぽうだ)ippou daMore and more; continue to ~
上げる(あげる)agerufinish doing ~
上で(うえで)ue ofon top; after; When; for; in order to
上に(うえに)wowalso; furthermore; Besides; not only…but also~
中(ちゅう)chuu / yocurrently; during; at some point; over; before the end of ~
代わりに(かわりに)kawari nirather than; as a substitute for; in exchange for; in exchange for
例えば(たとえば)tatoebafor example; for example ~
最中に(さいちゅうに)saichuu niWhile; during; in the middle of ~
切る(きる)kirudo something completely to the end
切れない(きれない)kirenaiunable to do; much to finish / complete
別に~ない(べつに~ない)betsu ni~nainot really, not particularly
割に(わりに)wari nirecital; comparatively; relatively; unexpectedly; exceptionally ~
合う(あう)wowdo something together
向き(むき)mukisuitable for ~
向け(むけ)mukedestined to; destined for ~
数量 + は(すうりょう + は)suuryou + waat least ~
気味(ぎみ)gimi-like; -looking; -like; tending to ~
決して~ない(けっして~ない)keshite~naiNever; not at all ~
的(てき)tekichange noun to adjective-na (-ish; -like; -ish)
直す(なおす)naosuto do something again; do it again
確かに(たしかに)tashika nicertainly, certainly ~
結局(けっきょく)kekkyokuafter all; ocasionally; at the end ~
結果(けっか)kekkaas a result of; after ~
込む(こむ)komudo something for a long time or move something inside
途中で/途中に(とちゅうで/とちゅうに)tochuu de / tochuu nion my way; in the middle of ~
通す(とおす)toosudo to the end; do continually; through ~
際に(さいに)come outWhen; at the time to; in the case of ~

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