Artificial Intelligence - All about AI, in Japan and in the World

Hello everyone, everything good? This article will deal with a very discussed subject in the field of technology, Artificial Intelligence. Abbreviated as AI, it is the utopia for most scholars in the fields of technology, electronics, engineering, computer science and several other areas related to robotics and computing. This is due to the fact that it is a giant challenge but that always presents advances, unlike other researches that generate irrelevant results or do not present results at all.

The nature of the scientist is the same as that of any curious person. And as such, he is encouraged when he discovers that there is a secret, and increases the more progress he makes in his investigation. AI in today's world is not reality. There are intelligent robots that are previously programmed to perform functions, but as we will see in this article, AI means something else.

The article is very complete, and in the end, we also recommend some for you to go deeper into the subject if you wish.

IA or AI - Software

Artificial Intelligence (AI) or Intelligent Artificial, are terms used to refer to “intelligent machines”. In order not to leave this definition vague, we can explain, however there will not be many other simple ways to describe AI. More specifically, AI means machines that have the intelligence to respond to stimuli from the environment in which they find themselves, in a way that maximizes their chance of success in any action they take.

The mechanical part of the robotics machine is not mandatory to be called AI. For what is important is the software that controls the machine, this part is the intelligence itself. Software is a computer program, this in basic and lay terms. However, this is just a vague term, software is a set of "keys" and "locks" in the form of sets of algorithms that communicate with each other, making and redoing thousands of calculations per second, with each lock responding accordingly. with the key that activates it.

It is complicated and counterproductive to fully explain things like these, however this explanation will be of great help later on, since it is the term that totally defines the thing called “Artificial Intelligence”.

The meaning of Intelligence

If we research the meaning of intelligence, we will find something like "the ability to learn or the ability to solve problems and adapt to situations". Reflecting on this, it can be seen that this is a vague term and has no absolute application.

Intelligence does not have a global and interpersonal level, each can learn things in different ways, and can solve problems in different ways. There is no absolute opinion on which attitude is smart, there is only a general census, that is, the majority opinion on some situation.

There is also the fact that Intelligence is relative from person to person according to the experience accumulated by each one. And the common census has great weight in learning, it is the accumulation of experiences and, with that, in intelligence. To explain it better, we will put an example to follow.

Artificial intelligence - everything about ia in japan and the world

Example of intelligence in the general census

There is a robbery going on, the place is a small coffee maker with a relatively large number of customers. We will not quote a date, we will just imagine that there is a humanoid robot with artificial intelligence, this robot is programmed to react to situations like these in the way that it has the chance to be the best possible way, it also has a lethal weapon and stun gun, as well as a nightstick. He also has experience with these situations and in all of them he had the solution without harming any human being.

However, on this occasion, the assailant takes a woman as a hostage, and protects himself from the robot's sights. This occasion is also programmed and trained by the robot's AI software but was never used because it was not necessary. The robot weapons have the following specifications.

The lethal weapon has great piercing power, the tranquilizer weapon The solution would be to use the stun gun has little capacity, just enough to extinguish a human being. The robot's software, with the intelligence contained in it, was able to learn that assailants have a high chance of becoming murderers, and protecting the population also means preventing crime and not just reacting after it happens. And for that knowledge to let the assailant escape would be unthinkable for the robot.

In this situation the robot could not use the stun gun because in all situations it would give the assailant an escape. Then he decides based on the readings made from the statistics, that sacrificing the hostage would be the most "Intelligent" attitude to take.

As this is the general census, the majority believe that they will support this action, however the other party will not agree and would call this attitude “barbaric” and take other actions. Aren't these other opinions indirectly calling the robot's action “stupid”? Draw your own conclusions.

Artificial Intelligence as an academic branch

In order not to vary the definition too much, we will select some paragraphs containing another meaning of the term IA. I believe that the meaning of this will not affect the former, since it relates to other facts, but it will also vary since AI is an extremely vague concept, as we can confirm in the previous topics.

But before that, we have to make clear the fact that AI mainly refers to and is contained in computer science. Robotics or other fields are only secondarily involved. Because it is an academic research topic, it has an academic branch especially for it.

And this branch is defined as the branch of computer science in general dedicated to research and creation of computational means and devices, which are capable of possessing and even multiplying the rational capacity of humans, that is, capable of having “intelligence”. With an emphasis on the part of being able to multiply human intelligence.

Artificial intelligence - everything about ia in japan and the world

Artificial Intelligence and its variants

If we research AI, we’ll see several types of AI. Well, they will be able to react and carry out situations, however they are just pre-programmed software. And their reactions are based on what is in the software, that is, each stimulus in the environment is the key that will open a lock, which is the robot's reaction.

Yes, these actions will be considered smart, but it is not enough just programmed reactions. Intelligence is also the ability to learn, that is, despite making intelligent actions these robots would not be qualified as an artificial intelligence model.

This is a type of intelligence, but it is nowhere near what scientists expect. Utopia for them would be a type of intelligence that is able to learn continuously, always according to the success rate taken into account.

Utopian Artificial Intelligence

If we compare these two types, we would have the following, the first in his programmed area of specialization would take the right actions, however it would not work if he were placed in another type of situation, such as a police robot, he would know deal with crimes but would not know how to do housework.

The second type would be the perfect model for all types of situations, since the ability to learn and react to stimuli would be sufficient for him to adapt perfectly to any type of situation. But of course, just like the human brain, this AI would need information on what to do, for that we have the internet, which would enable the availability and sharing of all kinds of possible situations.

But if we didn't have the internet, AI would need experience of error and success. This means that he would need to experiment with several methods until he reached the ideal method. You can already see that this AI imitates the human brain a lot, this is because the utopian intelligence for scientists is exactly one that mimics our brain.

Strong Artificial Intelligence

The IAs can thus be divided into two different parts on some issues. The first is strong AI and the other is weak AI. For better understanding I believe to take into account the previous examples for this topic as well.

Strong AIs are software that can continuously learn, as I mentioned before, this is the utopia for scientists in this field. Strong AI is able to accomplish everything we do with our brains, from learning simple things to solving difficult problems. In addition, she will never stop learning, unlike the human being who diminishes this capacity over time.

In this regard, strong schools could learn all the things that they had access to, and with the internet as a means they would be able to take possession of all the knowledge on the network. This is the main topic of discussion on AI. But of course this is unthinkable so far.

For this to happen, the software would need an unimaginable amount of memory, as everything has a limit, just like our brain. This AI is also involved in discussions about ethics, as it is classified as self - conscious, and would come and come to have personality and feelings. The latter is just speculation, after all it has no basis, since even human beings do not know exactly what feelings are.

Artificial intelligence - everything about ia in japan and the world

Weak Artificial Intelligence

Well this one is easier to explain. The fact is that weak ones are those that are able to reason and solve problems. They are those machines that are programmed with keys and locks already arranged for it. In other words, it only reacts based on what it has programmed and cannot deal with situations that are beyond its purview.

If we are going to compare this type of AI with the previous topic, we can use the example of keys and locks. Weak AI would have a limited number of them, never able to increase that number. Even if the number is gigantic, it will always be limited.

This limiting factor does not exist for strong AI, because with its ability it is able to “create” new keys and locks whenever it wants. Whenever she encounters a new lock, the strong AI will create a new key. And she would also store information continuously, always searching and selecting the best keys for the current locks and the ones she will find.

A little history of Artificial Intelligence

Although this topic is widely discussed today, the concept of AI is not new. Aristotle, the great philosopher, aimed to replace slave labor with autonomous objects. So, this is the first artificial intelligence idea that is known. The development of this idea took place fully in the 20th century, focusing mainly on the middle of the century. In a limited way, the early years were full of achievements.

The fact that a computer could perform some remotely intelligent activity, caused a big surprise, because before computers were machines that did arithmetic calculations and nothing else. From the beginning, AI had the help of several ideas, points of view and even techniques from different disciplines to form the basis of this science.

Philosophers contributed by making the idea possible, considering the ideas that the human mind resembles a machine in some ways. Economists created the problem of making decisions to increase the expected result. Psychologists have accepted the idea that we can be information-processing machines, and even animals fall into this category. Linguists have shown that the use of language fits this model. Computer engineers make AI applications possible by providing the necessary materials.

Artificial Intelligence and the future

The IA theme is extremely confusing and divergent, the researchers do not agree with each other and often fierce discussions are raised with the theme. Several questions are asked to question the use and danger of AI. At the same intensity, responses are returned in order to defend all the advances and facilities that AI can provide. But they never reach an agreement, and it is like an anthill, several paths that lead somewhere and so many others that only serve to deviate us from the right route.

But today there are practices and techniques derived from this science that have proven use and efficiency. Among them we can highlight the following

  • Autonomous control: when software is trained and packaged to be able to drive a vehicle;
  • Diagnosis: software capable of performing diagnosis at the level of a specialist doctor in several areas;
  • Logistical planning: software capable of planning according to the best logic things like cargo transportation, taking into account extreme situations such as conflicts and disruptions on the route;
  • Robotics in medicine: robots used as assistants of surgeons in microsurgery;
  • Chatterbots: software capable of interacting through conversations in a natural language as if they were really human;

Advantages of using Artificial Intelligence

Decrease errors: Being machines, artificial intelligence is more resistant and has a greater capacity to withstand hostile environments, decreasing the chances of failing in its objective. And it may be possible to achieve a greater degree of accuracy.

Exploration: Because of the robots' programming, they can perform more demanding work with greater responsibility. Thus, they are able to perform tasks that overcome human limitations, such as exploring the ocean floor or exploring inhospitable and dangerous mines.

Daily applications: Artificial Intelligence is present in various mechanisms of our daily lives such as GPS (global positioning system), correction of spelling errors in typing, among others.

No breaks: Machines don't need frequent breaks, unlike humans. They are able to work continuously without getting tired, distracted or bored, just by their schedule.

Artificial intelligence - everything about ia in japan and the world

Disadvantages of using Artificial Intelligence

High cost: the production costs of AI machines are huge, due to the complexity and difficulty of maintenance. The process of recovering lost codes, for example, requires a lot of time and resources.

Lack of creativity: Artificial intelligence is not developed to the point of acting as the human brain in a creative way. Therefore, the idea of performing functions similar to that of the human brain is inaccessible. This is also due to the fact that the brain is not fully understood and therefore cannot be replicated.

Mass unemployment. As they are able to perform tasks previously exclusive to humans in a more optimized and efficient way, artificial intelligence mechanisms tend to replace human activity on a large scale. Since the work of the IAs would be far better and more productive, this would cause the imminent replacement of the maximum number of people by these machines.

Artificial Intelligence Researchers

There are currently several AI researchers around the world at various research institutions and companies. Among the several who made significant contributions we can mention the following, it is worth remembering that here is just a reference to the importance of these names. To find out more about them, I recommend a deeper search.

  • Alan Turing (1912-1954): He was one of the most important men of all time. With studies that were not only the basis for the existence of artificial intelligence, but of almost all electronic devices ever made;
  • Jon McCarthy (1927-2011): Mathematician, scientist, the creator of the term “artificial intelligence” and also the father of the LISP programming language;
  • Marvin Minsky (1927-2016): The scientist explored how to equip human-like perception and intelligence machines, created robotic hands with the ability to manipulate objects, developed new programming frameworks and wrote about philosophical subjects related to artificial intelligence;

Artificial Intelligence in the economy

Currently, AI is one of the main research topics, since its advances and discoveries are extremely profitable and continuous. That is, even if you only take one step forward, this step in itself already compensates for all the efforts invested in it and still encourages and the confidence to continue researching.

With features like these and applications in all types and levels of industry, from agricultural machinery to space travel programming computers, its market is gigantic, and it grows exponentially soon after a new discovery.

There are many estimates of the size of the artificial intelligence market. According to Bank of America Merrill Lynch, the global market for artificial intelligence solutions will grow to US $ 70 billion in 2020, compared to US $ 8.2 billion in 2013. The global AI market is also expected to be increasingly affected by growing government funding and a strong technological base.

Artificial Intelligence Markets

There are several large AI markets, such as the USA, Japan, Europe and recently China. Deep learning, which aims to try to copy the functioning of neuron layers in the human brain, is a breakthrough in AI's 50-year history.

Tractica, a US market research company, predicts that annual software for enterprise-wide learning applications will reach US $ 1.1 billion in 2024 by 2024.

According to Frost & Sullivan, AI healthcare revenues are estimated to reach US $ 6.66 billion in 2021, up from US $ 633.8 million in 2014. Strategy Analytics, an American research and consulting firm , predicts that systems assisted by autonomous drivers will grow from 5 billion euros in 2012 to 16 billion euros in 2019.

Research Rules on Artificial Intelligence

There are currently no rules or norms placed on AI research. It is up to each company to decide what will and will not be researched. And as we can deduce, companies do everything in their power to make a profit. Which often leads to repudable but productive actions.

It is for reasons like this that there is a recurring need to sanction rules and norms for AI research. Based on this line of thinking, Japan proposed the creation of a set of ground rules for the development of AI technology at the G7 technology meeting in Japan in April 2016. One rule that was given as an example in this proposal would be to make AI networks controllable by humans.

Japanese Artificial Intelligence Industry

As the site’s focus is Japan, we couldn’t talk about it in this article. Since it is also one of the major AI markets in the world, it will be discussed particularly here. But just fixing, what I will post is only light and medium information, if you are interested and want to know more about this topic I will leave the links of the sites where I got the base of this article

Many analysts have pointed out that the Japanese AI industry today is not very competitive on a global scale. For example, when it comes to AI research between 2008 and 2013, most come from Western countries and China. Only about 2% come from Japan. Which is an extremely low number for a large country like Japan.

Over the past 10 to 20 years, Japan has lost its technology leadership to companies in the West and, in large part, due to software deficiencies. Japan is still at the forefront in hardware, like robots. But this fortress is in danger of being lost, because the software is increasingly vital to make these products work and compete in the international market.

Japanese Artificial Intelligence

When it comes to deep learning, it is currently the most advanced form of AI. There is a big difference between Japan and the USA. In Silicon Valley, deep learning is primarily a way to make software better. However, many Japanese companies tend to look at deep learning differently, as a way to improve hardware.

Deep Learning is a sub-area of Machine Learning that investigates techniques to simulate the behavior of the human brain in tasks such as visual recognition, speech recognition and natural language processing. Deep learning algorithms aim to produce high-level hierarchical representations of the input data, through sequential processing layers in an artificial neural network.

Deep AI learning - part 1

I cannot choose terms, but I can set an example, for people who have failed to understand. We will return the keys and locks, well the brain works more or less in the following way, a stimulus from the environment acts like the keys, the reactions act like locks, for each type of stimulus the brain creates several different keys that are selected differently from people to people.

There are often locks after locks, in various sequences that work less like memory devices, and they need keys to open, and when there are no keys, the brain creates them (this is what I call new experiences) even that are not the best, he will remember that lock and on other occasions he will try to create other keys to open this lock (the so-called trial and error for us).

Deep AI learning - part 2

Well if I managed to explain it correctly, you must have understood, that the brain is not like a room with several doors leading directly to different exits, it would look like a room with countless doors, and these doors would end up in other rooms with several other doors just like the initial one, and if you entered another door in this second room, you would end up in another room full of doors just like the previous ones, this phenomenon would end when the brain reached the desirable result.

To explain in numbers, we can do the following. Imagine that the brain stores the information as numbers 1 through 4. It records a particular situation as the number 3321. If it required to redo this situation at another time, it would have to trace the same path of numbers.

We returned the doors, if the doors of the rooms were numbered with a number each, you would need to use the keys to open the locks of the numbers in the respective order, always remembering that there could be the case of you getting this done with more than a single key for each lock.

AI industry assistants in Japan

For a long time, Japanese companies have focused on manufacturing robots (hardware), while foreign companies have focused more on the software side. Japanese manufacturers need to implement a more customer-oriented perspective to develop AI robots that better match users' needs. The government's goal is to unleash a robotics revolution with robots equipped with artificial intelligence that can communicate with each other.

In May 2016, an Industrial Competitiveness Cabinet Council announced that it would start introducing AI systems in the most diverse industries and areas, which should increase Japan's productivity. The goal is to increase GDP to 600 trillion yen in 2020, from the level of around 500 trillion yen in 2015. A sub-goal is to create a 30 trillion yen market for new emerging technologies, including other AI technologies.

Other AI industry helpers in Japan

Another development that over time will expand the AI market is the tendency for Japanese corporations to establish AI research and development bases in the USA. R & D centers in institutes Japanese public research facilities have also been established, and this is expected to accelerate new advances in AI technology.

The declining population will begin to damage the labor market, as the population continues to age and its birth rate does not increase. Statistics show that people aged 65 and over accounted for 26% of the population in 2015. Japan plans to make up for the deficit of the working population with widespread use of AI-powered robots.

Challenges for Japanese Artificial Intelligence

The Nomura Research Institute tried to quantify the potential impact of artificial intelligence on the labor market and indicated that there is a possibility that about half of Japan's workforce will be replaced by robots or artificial intelligence in the next 10 to 20 years.

It will be important to steer the explosive growth of AI in the right direction to achieve the full value of AI possibilities. In this regard, it will be important to monitor development abroad closely. There are many considerations in privacy, security, regulations and laws that need to be taken into account when integrating AI technology into private sector activities.

The need to develop new business models to deal with the new realities of technologies emerging AI is also an important issue. And several other specific types of challenges will need to be addressed if Japan wants to grow and compete on an equal footing with the other major AI markets around the world.

Japanese Internal Market for Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence is increasingly entering a commercialization phase in Japan. According to the Japanese government, AI technologies are expected to generate an economic return of around JPY 121 trillion by 2045.

According to a study by the Ernst & Young Institute, a Japanese study center, the size of the AI market is estimated to grow from approximately 3.7 trillion yen in 2015 to 23 trillion yen in 2020, an increase of six times. And by 2030, the size of the market will reach about JPY 87 trillion.

The transport sector, including driverless taxis and lorries, is the one that will show the largest increase during the forecast period and is estimated to reach 30.5 billion yen in 2030. The manufacturing sector, which includes cars autonomous, is expected to grow to approximately JPY 12.2 trillion by 2030.

Artificial Intelligence Courses

Below we will share some interesting online courses on Artificial Intelligence:

Artificial Intelligence Books

Below we will share some interesting books on Artificial Intelligence:

Conclusion on Artificial Intelligence

Finally, I have to stress again that AI is an extremely complex subject that involves material of various types, from philosophy to engineering. To simplify the understanding and improve the fluidity of the text, I sacrificed some details that could become important in other cases. But in this article the main focus was to talk and try to define what AI is and how important it is.

For me, who did a lot of research and saw countless contents, selecting and highlighting the main ones, this text has numerous flaws, but for people who are just trying to kill a little bit of curiosity about AI, this is a text, in my opinion, satisfactory. I also tried not to include acronyms about AI, as acronyms often need separate explanations in order to be understood, as was the case with DL, or deep learning.

In addition, I can only indicate a few sites with content about AI, which were the basis for this article.

This article ends here. Thank you, my dear reader, for reading this article so far. And if you have any questions, suggestions, criticisms or any other of the kind, please comment below. And don’t forget to vote, it helps us offer the best content for you.

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